Ola Rokita

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Wheat Flour Types and Best Uses

Ola Rokita20 May 2019Comments (50)


Not all wheat flour types
are the same

If I were to compare wheat flour types in Poland, the closest that comes to mind is wine and grape varieties. Just like wine, some complement fish dishes better, while others are ideal for sipping with filet mignon.

European vs. North American Flour

There are big differences between European flour and North American flour. Not only based on the type of wheat that readily grows on each continent, but also the environment in which it grows and how the wheat is cultivated.

Cake vs. Bread Flour

Depending on how the wheat is processed, some wheat flours are better for bread making, whereas others are better for cakes.

What’s the meaning of “type”
when classifying flours in Poland?

Although in North America most recipes call for All-Purpose flour, in Poland we distinguish flours for different uses based on “type”. Type relates to the amount of “ash” that remains after a flour sample is burned. The more ash, the richer the flour is in minerals important for our health. So, for example, if you burn a sample of a fairly processed flour like the 500 type, only about 0.50% of ash remains. In less processed flours like 1,850 or 2,000,  the ash content is about 1.85% or 2%.

Using All-Purpose flour
instead of specific flour type

Although the All-Purpose flour has many applications and it’s very similar to the 500 type and 550 type flour used in Poland, the settle differences between the flour used for yeast baking versus pastas, can impact your results. Especially if you’re trying to make your recipes as authentic as possible.

Below is a quick guide of wheat flour from Poland types, gluten, protein content, and their best applications:


Wheat Flour Type 450 “Tortowa”

Click to buy


Very delicate flour, contains about 18% of gluten, 9% to 10% of protein, and it’s very refined. It also means it has fewer minerals beneficial to health since only the core of the wheat grain is used. However, it will make your cakes tender and lighter.

Can also be used in recipes requiring pastry flour. The Tortowa flour is excellent for spongecakes, certain pie crusts, and cakes.



Wheat Flour Type 500, or “Wroclawska”


Heavier flour than “Tortowa”, contains about 25% of gluten and 10% of protein. This flour is ideal for making crepes, waffles, or pancakes.

Can also be used in recipes calling for all-purpose flour.




Wheat Flour Type 500, or “Poznanska”

Click to buy


Ideal flour for making pierogi, dumplings, pastas, or pizzas. Contains about 11% of protein, slightly more than “Wroclawska”, and even though they are similar, I find that this flour has an edge over other flours for making pastas and pierogis.

If you’re making pizza and you don’t have access to Italian pizza flour type “00”, Poznanska flour is a good substitute. Of course, to make an authentic pizza dough, flour type “00” is the ideal pizza flour, but I find this one to be delicate enough to make excellent pizza.


Wheat Flour Type 500 “Krupczatka”


Coarsely milled flour. Very similar to semolina in texture. Contains at least 25% gluten and 10% to 11% of protein.

This flour is my favorite to use for cookies, shortbread or pie crusts, especially apple crumble. It adds a nice crispiness to baked pastries and makes pie crusts crispier rather than chewy. You can use it in a combination with “Tortowa” Type 450 to bake excellent pies and cookies. It’s also a great substitute when making Italian-style pasta.






Wheat Flour Type 550 “Luksusowa”

Lubella flour

Click to buy

Excellent flour for yeast-based baking or fried pastry, such as donuts, challah, pizza dough, or dinner rolls. It contains at least 25% of gluten and 12% of protein.

I also use it as a substitute for recipes that require all-purpose flour.



Wheat Flour Type 650 and above

Chlebowa Flour type 750

Anything over 650 is good for bread baking. It’s denser, but also has more nutrients and fiber.

Personally, for baking bread at home I like to use the 750 type. It has wonderfully wheat-like flavor and makes the bread light and airy.



Whole Wheat Flour Type 2,000 

type 2,000 flour

Click to Buy Wholegrain Type 2,000 

Excellent flour for making wholemeal bread. This type of flour is wholegrain, which means that the husk is not removed during the processing and the flour is richer in many beneficial nutrients, ranging from fiber, folic acid, iron, to vitamin B6.

Using this type of flour makes the bread denser and darker. You can use it instead of regular all-purpose flour to make your next bread, or at least replace half the portion of the flour in your recipe.

This wholewheat flour contains at least 15% of protein.


recipe image
Recipe Name
Wheat flour for Poland and best uses in baking
Alex Rokita
Ola's Bakery
Average Rating
51star1star1star1star1star Based on 4 Review(s)

{ 50 comments… read them below or add one }

rosie bruno May 15, 2020 at 13:55

Hi Ola,

I am assuming that all of these Polish flours are unbleached? Seems you use only the finest ingredients, so I would think so. I need some unbleached flour to add to a sourdough starter to make pizza and the corner store has many of these Polish varieties, but I can’t read Polish!

Thank you!


Ola Rokita May 15, 2020 at 21:56

Hi Rosie!

Correct, Polish flour is unbleached and not enriched, this is why I am a big fan of using it in my baking. For your starter try wholegrain flour type 2,000 or “Pelne Ziarno” in Polish and then use type 500 or 550 to make the dough for your pizza.


Barbara Coleman September 22, 2020 at 22:51

Dear Ola:
Three years ago, I took my whole family to visit relatives in Poland. We all fell in love with Polish food, especially pierogi. I tried making pierogi with American flour but they came out tough and chewy, unlike Polish pierogi, light and fluffy. I live in Southern California, near Santa Barbara. I called several European/Polish stores asking, if they carried Polish wheat flour Type 500 or 550 and no one carries the flour. Can you recommend a store that would be willing to ship the flour to me.
Respectfully your,
Barbara Coleman


Ola Rokita September 23, 2020 at 11:28

Hi Barbara!

Thank you for visiting my site. I am very happy to learn that your visit to Poland has left such a positive impression on you. I love Polish food and miss it very much now that I live in the U.S.

My kids love making pierogi because it’s fun for them to play with the dough and create their own fillings. I grew up eating lots of pierogis and often helped my grandmother make them.

You’re absolutely right! The pierogi dough needs to be tender and delicate rather than thick and chewy like you described. I agree with you that the type of flour you use to make pierogis plays a key role. The best flour for pierogi is known as “Poznanska” flour and the type is 500. I have not seen online stores selling it in the U.S., but I am happy to send you a kilo so you can test it out. Let me know if you would like that by sending me an email directly.

Thanks again for your note.



Eric October 19, 2020 at 19:09

Ola and Barbara,

It is hard to find in the United States. There are several Polish and multi-ethnic grocers in and around Chicago that carry Polish flour (I just stocked up while visiting Chicago). There are a couple of Polish grocers in Western Massachusetts that probably carry it, but haven’t had a chance to check them out yet.

I really like the recipe for pierogi dough on the Lubella brand. I took the suggestion on the label and added a tablespoon of vegetable oil. The dough was so silky and rolled out much more easily than dough made with American all purpose flour.

I haven’t tried it yet, but King Arthur started making an Italian type 00 flour that can be mail ordered. It might be a good substitute if you can’t the Polish flours online or near you.


Brian Cole December 24, 2020 at 17:01

Hi,, Are you familiar with Chlebowa flour?. It has a picture of a blonde lady wearing a crown on the package if that helps. Thanks



Ola Rokita December 24, 2020 at 20:34

Hi Brian,

Thanks for reaching out. “Chlebowa” flour is flour specifically made for baking bread. It usually contains several flour varieties mixed together that add character and specific flavour to the bread. Chlebowa flour is usually a mixture of wholewheat, rye, and spelt flours.

My guess is that you’re either referring to the “Gdanskie Mlyny” wholewheat flour excellent for bread making or “Krolowa Kuchni” flour from Krakow, however this flour does not have the lady on the packaging, only the 390 type does, so I think you’re referring to the flour from Gdansk.

I have not used either of these, but the one in Gdansk uses local wheat suppliers which means that they use the wheat from Poland. They also appear to use high quality wheat so their product must be good.

Is this flour accessible in your area? If you’re baking bread with it, you’ll probably be pleased with the results if you’re looking to make a hearty bread.

Hope this helps.


Brian Cole December 24, 2020 at 21:09

Thanks for the reply, yes I saw it at a store near me called bell’s market near philly. I’m looking for a polish or european flour at least for pizza dough that’s a little healthier but not dense and if what you were thinking it is than I might get it next time. At the moment I’ve been using some flours from italy and one of them is a type 1 flour which is half whole wheat and I’ve been happy with the overall results (taste and digestion) but its would be cheaper and easier to get this. I took some pics that I created links for


Ola Rokita December 25, 2020 at 22:48


When it comes to making an authentic pizza dough, the best flour is Italian 00. If you’re using the Polish one, “Tortowa” type 450 or “Poznanska” type 500 is great as well.

I agree with you that a healthier flour is wholewheat because it’s less processed and has many valuable nutrients. Italian type 1 flour is great for bread and it’s a lot denser, so the pizza dough might be less fluffy or delicate, but it will be healthier. 
Try the “Chlebowa” flour and see how it works out. As mentioned earlier, it probably has other flours mixed in it, so this type of flour might make the pizza dough a bit denser. Remember you can always use half a portion of the “Chlebowa” and half a portion of the lighter wheat flours I mentioned above to balance the texture.

In any case, try it out and let me know how it works out!

Happy baking!


Rebecca Petersen January 1, 2021 at 04:56

Thanks so much for this post! I am an American living in Poland and want to make bagels. According to this article, the TYP 650 flour would be better than a TYP 450, correct?

After living here for a long time, I still don’t know exactly what the numbers are for – 450, 480, 500 or 550, 650. Is it the gluten content? And if so, how do you learn how to use it? I remember asking when we first arrived in Poland and the only answer I got was, “A good woman who bakes knows the difference” without explaining. To me, that wasn’t an explanation, esp. since at that time, I didn’t know Polish and was desperate to learn what type to use to make a good biscuit. I pretty much use 450 or 480 for everything as I tried 650 and my biscuits came out like lead. (American recipe). Will bagels work with the TYP 650 flour?


Ola Rokita January 1, 2021 at 19:17

Hello Rebecca,
Thank you for your note. Being an American in Poland can be a great experience, but I can also imagine how it can make you miss some of the American foods and local conveniences.
Sorry that some of the Polish folks weren’t helpful with answering your questions about flour. It must be frustrating communicating in a different language. 
When it comes to classifying flour in Poland, the numbers represent how much “ash” is left after burning a sample of the flour. The more ash is left over, the less the flour is processed or purified. 
If you’re baking biscuits, I would not use anything higher than 550, if you want your biscuits to be airy and fluffy. In fact, to bake biscuits, I would use type 450 or 500. That would ensure a good texture. It seems that you already discovered that 450 works for most of your baking. Type 500 is very similar to the all-purpose flour found in the states.
When I bake bagels, I use flour type 550. Type 650 is ok too, but it might make your bagels a little denser. However, this flour is less refined and therefore healthier. It’s a great flour for baking bread. 
Again, thanks for reaching out and if you have any more questions, please let me know. 


Joan March 16, 2021 at 13:55

I am so confused but I’m sure you can help me. I bought: “PZZ Krakow Wheat Flour maka pszenna Krupczatka”…that is what is on the front of the bag. Can I use this flour for baking bread? My go-to bread is buttermilk rye and was wondering if this flour can be used. I also make a lot of flax seed bread, so can I use this for flax seed bread also?


Ola Rokita March 16, 2021 at 23:59

Hi Joan!

Thanks for reaching out. The short answer is yes. You can bake bread out of Krupczatka wheat flour, but it’s not the ideal flour for baking bread and it’s tougher to use because it’s coarsely milled. Krupczatka wheat flour is good for making cookies and tarts. You can also use it to bake delicious biscuits. You might also find that you need a slightly larger portion of Krupczatka flour than you would normally need compared with all-purpose flour. Krupczatka wheat flour absorbs hydration differently than the finely milled types, like “Poznanska” or “Luksusowa”, so the consistency might be slightly off.
In any case, if that’s all you have on hand, try baking with it and see if you like the extra crumb in your bread’s texture.



Joan March 17, 2021 at 16:37

Hi Ola!! Thank you for your response. After reading your explanation, I chose to make shortbread cookies instead of trying to make bread with my Krupczatka flour. After working with this flour, I now understand why its consistency is NOT the best choice for breads. I needed to see the dough in action to appreciate its uses. You are right…bread wouldn’t be a failure but this flour can be used more beneficially in other recipes. However, it did make the best shortbread cookies I’ve ever made. Thank you again. Joan


Ola Rokita March 21, 2021 at 22:55


So happy to know you found a good use for your Krupczatka flour. For certain recipes, it’s an ideal flour and certainly your shortbread cookies must have turned out fantastic and delightfully crispy.

Thanks for sharing your experience. Hopefully you’ll be able to try other Polish flour varieties to bake your bread. Flours 550 or higher are awesome. The darker and heartier the bread, the higher the type number 🙂

Happy Baking,


Deborah March 22, 2021 at 19:14

Thank you for this post! I have a question. I want to make a cake that calls for cake flour & I bought the Lubella flour type 450. Do you think this would be good to use? I know cake flour normally has a percentage range of 5-8% but this has 10% so I wasn’t so sure.


Ola Rokita March 22, 2021 at 21:57

Hi Deborah,

The Lubella flour type 450 or “Tortowa” is considered a cake flour in Poland and it’s ideal for making pastries and cakes. It’s my favorite flour to use for making spongecake. Even though the protein content is slightly higher, I think you’ll find that this flour will work very well for cakes. I say you try it out. I think you’ll like it. 🙂

Keep me posted on how it works out.



Deborah March 27, 2021 at 16:20

You were 1000% right! I used it a few days ago and I can honestly say this was the best vanilla cake I’ve ever made (& ive made a lot in the past) it has a nice soft velvety crumb and even when I was mixing it the batter was so smooth. The flour really did make a difference, I don’t think I’ll be using any other flour now that I’ve discovered the Tortowa.

Thank you so much Ola!


Ola Rokita March 28, 2021 at 14:18

Hi Deborah!

Very happy to hear about your “Tortowa” flour success! Yes, the “Tortowa” flour is ideal for cakes. I even use it for pizza dough sometimes when I want that soft yet lightly crumbly crust similar to the one made out the Italian 00 flour.

Thank you for sharing 🙂



Mohit May 1, 2021 at 18:53

Hi, your article was very informative and helpful. I am from India and if I want flour for making chapati. Which forms from whole wheat grain flour. I hope if you had tatsed Indian cuisine then you know about it. I found that more the number of type like I used 1850, the more it resemble to our Chapati. So how high number can I get in market and from which stores??? And higher the number type is good for health???
Please reply


Ola Rokita May 2, 2021 at 07:58

Thank you for your note. Happy to know you found the information helpful. Yes, I very much like Indian cuisine. There is so much flavor and complexity in most of the Indian dishes I tried. I also appreciate the diverse dishes from the different regions across India. It’s an incredible cuisine!
As for the flour type from Poland, I assume you’re using wheat flour for making Chapati. The highest type, or number, of wheat flour I’m aware of is wholewheat flour type 2,000. As you mentioned, it’s a healthier type because the entire wheat kernel is ground retaining most of the nutrients. As for acquiring this flour type, it depends on where you live. In the US very few stores sell it, but you can buy the local organic wholewheat flour too and it’s fairly good. I’m hoping to eventually carry type 2,000 flour, but it’s been tough to get it into the US given the pandemic. Glad you’re baking your own bread, and I hope that you get to try baking with type 2,000 soon.



Melodie August 13, 2021 at 20:20

Thanks for this! I am trying to convert some recipes to local (US) ingredients and your column was the clearest I found. We have a local-ish mill that makes a wide variety but I couldn’t tell what was what till I found this.
I appreciate your hard work!


Ola Rokita September 24, 2021 at 22:41

Wow! Thank you Melodie 🙂

I’m very happy to learn you found my column clear and that it was helpful.

Thank you for your kind note.



Mandy October 6, 2021 at 16:31

Hi there 🙂

I’m from the UK and my husband is Polish. We’re in Poland at the moment and I want to make mamusia a cake with a recipe I have back home. It’s a blueberry and Lemon cake and usually I just use self raising flour as per the instructions. I have no idea which one I should be going for in the polish equivalent, please help?

Mandy 🙂


Kasia December 18, 2021 at 18:09

Hi Ola. I am a Pole living in Australia. Just about to start prepping some Christmas food (pierogi i uszka) but I was wondering what flour would be best for that. I have used different flours in the past but could never fibd the right one and my mum’s recipe calls for egg as well which makes the dough really hard to work with sometimes. Would 00 flour work as well as the Polish 600 when making pierogi?


Ola Rokita December 19, 2021 at 07:41

Hello Kasia,

Thanks for your note. When it comes to Pierogi, I know what you mean about having the right dough. It needs to be elastic, delicate, and sticky so it holds the filling in place. As you noted correctly, flour plays a big part in making amazing Pierogi. My favorite flour for pierogi is wheat flour ‘Poznanska’ type 500 from Poland. However, if you don’t have access to flour from Poland, I agree with you that Italian 00 flour is an excellent alternative. It’s very delicate, so the dough should turn out lighter. I’m not a fan of having a thick and dense pierogi dough. To make your pierogi even more delicate, add a couple of tablespoons of sour cream or butter. It will also make rolling the dough easier.

Best of luck!


Kasia December 19, 2021 at 18:36

Thank you Ola 🥰


Anna January 17, 2022 at 15:57


I live in an area (of the US) that allows me to have access to a huge variety of Polish products. I have two questions. 1. Do you recommend any Polish organic flours that can be used like an all purpose for something like cookies? 2. Do you recommend any organic alternative to mąka pszenna Królowa Kuchni Typ 390 (my Babcia swears by that one for her pierogi dough hahah) Let me know! Also so glad I somehow stumbled across this page when doing a google search. Thanks.


Ola Rokita January 17, 2022 at 20:19


Very happy you stumbled on this page as well. Glad you have easy access to different types of flours from Poland. My favorite brand of organic flour from Poland is from ‘Mlynomag’ ‘Maka Pszenna T-650’. I’ve seen this flour in some parts of the US, especially in the Chicago area. It’s not as refined as the 390 type ‘Krolowa Kuchni’, but it’s fantastic high quality flour to use for baking light breads. I’m not surprised your grandmother likes using Krolowa Kuchni for pierogis, it works very well for making the dough very delicate.

When it comes to all-purpose, I like using the 500 or 550 type. Mlynomag produces both types. For cookies I would use 500 type ‘Maka Reszelska’ and for baking yeast breads, I would use 550, ‘Maka Luksusowa’. Both are excellent.

Otherwise, ‘Melvit’ and ‘Lubella’ produce 500 and 550 types, and their flours are also high quality.

Hope this helps,


Debra January 22, 2022 at 14:00

Hello Ola,
Are you familiar with King Arthur white whole wheat flour grown in the U.S.A.? White wheat is a different variety of wheat that is much lighter than red whole wheat. I buy only organic flour and try to use whole grain as much as possible. I’m wondering if the white whole wheat could work for pierogi, nalesniki and uszka, or if I need to use all purpose (not enriched), or if I should try to track down Polish flour. Many thanks for your site!


Ola Rokita January 23, 2022 at 10:35

Hi Debra,

Thank you for your note!

Happy to hear you only use whole wheat flour. It is a healthier flour as it has more minerals and nutrients than refined flours. Yes, I’m familiar with King Arthur flour and I like it. It’s probably one of the better quality flours in the U.S., especially the organic whole wheat flour. Whole wheat flour is great for bread baking, and even some pastries like cookies or muffins, where having some crumb is good, but you might find it hard to work with for making pierogies. Pierogi dough requires a more refined flour so that the dough is silky and highly elastic. 

When it comes to ‘Nalesniki’ whole wheat flour will work ok, but the taste might be a bit ‘bread-like’ and can stick more to the pan unless you use a generous amount of grease. You can mix half and half of whole wheat and All-Purpose flours together to lessen the bread-like taste. 

For making pierogi and ‘uszka’, you probably will find the All-Purpose flour easier to work with. It’s great that you have access to the kind that’s not enriched. 

If you’re willing to experiment and you’re able to get wheat flour from Poland type 500, I highly recommend it. Especially if you want to achieve that authentic taste. 



Constantinos February 1, 2022 at 03:48

I need a High Gluten flour for New York style Pizza, from a hard spring wheat, with protein 14.5%, not necessarily “00” type, preferably malted. Is there a polish Product I could use?


Ola Rokita February 1, 2022 at 18:22

Hello Costa,

Thank you for your note. Most wheat flours from Poland are the soft variety kind and the protein is about 12% in more delicate flours ideal for pizza. Have you ever tried Spelt flour. In Poland Spelt flour is very popular and the spelt cake flour, called ‘Maka Orkiszowa Tortowa’ has more than 14% of protein, however it’s low in gluten.

My favorite wheat flour to use for pizza is wheat ‘Tortowa’ flour or cake flour, type 450, which is similar to the Italian ’00’ flour. However its gluten percentage is around %18. If you want higher gluten, I highly recommend 550 type, ‘Maka Luksusowa’. This flour type has at least 12% protein and about 25% gluten content.

Hope this helps and you might want to experiment to see if 450 or 550 type is better.



Karen July 14, 2022 at 10:39

I see that you mention pizza dough, but I cannot find a recipe. How would you use TYP 500 to make pizza?


Erin July 15, 2022 at 10:27

Hi Ola!

I am so happy I found your website! I have a very similar story. I did a lot of research on glyphosate and the reactions people can have after I ate all the baked goods in France and didn’t feel sick or bloated.
My partner is Polish and gets me flours from the local Polish store in Chicago. They have tons of different types, but he didn’t know anything about them. His favorite for bread right now is spelt flour from Poland, but I also like to make him ciabatta and focaccia. Now I know which type of Polish flour to use!
I used this one last night make a pie crust because it was all we had left. It turned out well, but is there one you would suggest for pie crust?

mąka pszenna
Królowa Kuchni


Laurie August 25, 2022 at 17:24

Hello, I have new friends from Poland who love some cookies that I make. I tried to make them at their house, using Luksusowa flour. The cookies I make are very close to shortbread cookies, (1-3/4 c flour, 1/2 cup powdered sugar, 1 cup pecans, 1tsp vanilla and salt). but the texture this flour produced was very dense and much too crumbly and the cookies didn’t really brown in the oven.

Do you have a suggestion? Many thanks.laurie


Jeannie February 4, 2023 at 04:04

Hi Ola we are from the USA grew up in Santa Barbara CA, we retired early and have been to Poland 3 times. Currently we are here for 6 months and found your information very beneficial as I am used using the flour back in the states. Thankful for google translator at the store as I looked for baking powder to bake items. I am so thankful you have this information about the flour. We shopped at Auchavan and found a variety of flours, I had no idea only saw the photos. This one package below has a bread..I guess it’s not for American pancakes🙂
Bought Melvit Razowa
Make pszenna Do wypieku domowego chleba
I will have to get a different flour to make Southern buiscuits my husband likes


Ola Rokita February 4, 2023 at 08:54

Hi Jeannie! Wow! Santa Barbara CA is certainly very different than Poland. You probably miss the balmy weather, but hopefully you found certain charms of Poland that make up for the cooler temperatures.

Thank you for sharing your experience with using flour in Poland. Yes, it can be confusing purchasing wheat flour in Poland when there are so many varieties and types. The key, when buying wheat flour in Poland, is to look for the “type” number, the higher the type, the more protein and nutrients it has. Lower numbers are great for light fluffy cakes and higher numbers are great for breads.

Whenever you see the word “Razowa” written on the flour it means it is wholemeal flour, with bran and germ included, making it ideal for baking wholewheat breads and hardier baked goods.

Enjoy your travels and happy baking!



Balbina Smalarz February 15, 2023 at 13:04

purchased label reads -Wheat Flour Tortowa top of package 09 2023 DK 27.09.2 USPC code 0 8486 4 35552 4
What is the date I can keep to use this?
Thank you


Ola Rokita February 15, 2023 at 18:54

Hello Balbina,

It appears that the recommended use-by-date for this cake or pastry flour is September 2023. Typically the way dates are written in Poland is Day/Month/Year, progressively smallest to largest, from day to month to a year. Normally a product use-by date would include a day as well, while in this case I only see a month and year in your description. Maybe it’s September 27th, 2023. The other numbers seem to be batch or product numbers. So you can use it until September. Use-by date is typically a recommendation from the manufacturer by when to use flour. The good news is that if you store your flour in dry and cool place, you can typically use it a few weeks past it’s best-by date. But smell it first, if the flour has a neutral smell and maybe slightly nutty, it should be good to use. If you detect a strong smell or slightly acidic, I wouldn’t use. Your nose knows 🙂



Nilesh March 17, 2023 at 10:12

Hi, I bought Wheat Flour Type 450 “Tortola” from my local supermarket. I wanted to make scones. Would I be able to use this for baking scones?


Ola Rokita March 17, 2023 at 16:00

Hi Nilesh!,

Thanks for your question about the best flour to use for baking sconces. In fact, you hit the jackpot buying the “Tortowa” wheat flour type 450, the ideal flour to bake light and crispy sconces.

I only baked scones twice in my life, but based on my short experience, a heavier flour with more protein would make them too dense. I had many occasions to eat scones when traveling to London. Scones are a great treat. My favorite way to eat them is toasted with strawberry preserves. Yum!



Tatiana March 22, 2023 at 16:32

Hi Ola, is there any polish flour that I can use for panettone? I know it has to be high in gluten and protein…I have access in Chicago area for great selection of polish flours but I can not decide if any of those would work.
Planning on a panettone with pasta madre and would like to find the perfect flour.
Thank you!


Tatiana March 22, 2023 at 16:33

Hi Ola, is there any polish flour that I can use for panettone? I know it has to be high in gluten and protein…I have access in Chicago area for great selection of polish flours but I can not decide if any of those would work.
Planning on a panettone with pasta madre and would like to find the perfect flour…
Thank you!


Ola Rokita March 22, 2023 at 22:27

Hi Tatiana!

Thanks for reaching out. I love Panettone. When I lived in Italy, I remember eating it frequently. It’s delicious!
For best results, if you’re using Polish flours, I would mix two (50/50) wheat flours, a very fine flour, type 405 or 450, and type 500 to get the right amount of protein. Ideally you would want to use equal portions of classic Italian wheat flours, “Manitoba” and tipo “00”, if you can get them.

Hopefully this helps you achieve the ideal result 🙂



Tatiana March 23, 2023 at 14:58

Dear Ola,
Thank you so much for your response.
I have been looking at the protein content of the flours that you have mentioned. For example Lubella Maka Lukusowa Puszista typ 550 has 12 gr of protein, and Basia tortowa extra tup 405 has 10 gr of protein content…how does it work if the protein content for panettone flour should be 14 and a bit more. Why mixing those two can get a higher protein content?
Also, I have access to 00 type flour (King Arthur) but no luck for manitoba….
Is it possible to add vital wheat gluten flour to any of those (405 or 500) to get is as close as possible to manitoba?
Or maybe to add gluten flour to King Arthur 12.7% bread flour to make it more panettone suitable? What are your thoughts about that?
Thanks a lot for sharing your knowledge and giving good options and advice.


Tatiana March 23, 2023 at 15:00

Sorry, I meant Lubella Maka Poznanska Puszysta typ 500, has 11gr of protein


Ola Rokita March 23, 2023 at 22:33

Tatiana, Italian Manitoba flour is very specific because it’s high in gluten and protein. Unfortunately, most wheat flours in Poland sold in retail stores have between 9% to 12% protein, which is below Manitoba’s 14%, which is also uniquely very high in gluten. For long fermentation process required in making Panettone you need higher protein and gluten and when it comes to Polish flours, I’m afraid there isn’t an equivalent. Wholewheat flour type “2,000” has 15% protein, but it is lower in gluten than Manitoba. You could try and add a few tablespoons of the wholewheat flour type 2,000, but you also want a flour that’s light and airy, so you’ll need to be careful how much you add.

I wish there was a comparable flour in Poland, but despite the varieties, there isn’t one that matches Manitoba. I haven’t seen Manitoba flour being sold in the US, but I have seen Italian type “00” in many stores and you can use that flour and still come out with a delicious Panettone.


Dhruvi April 15, 2023 at 10:03

Hi Ola,

I am from India and have recently shifted to Gdańsk. I was looking for a good wheat flour that is similar to the ones we get in our home country and your post helped me a lot.
I choose Type 2000 flour for Indian rotis and parathas. I hope that works. *Fingers crossed*

Thank you so much for the informative blog 🙂


Ola Rokita April 17, 2023 at 22:12


Thank you for your kind words. I’m happy to hear that you found my blog helpful and that you’re living in Gdansk. It’s a wonderful city, full of charm, culture, and history. Indian food is one of my favorite and there are so many wonderful dishes to chose from depending on the region. For parathas that are made with wholewheat flour, Type 2,000 should work well.

Thanks again for your note and sharing your experience.



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